Prepared by Maximilian C. Forte

The following items are annotated, where possible, using publisher information on a given text and listing the contents of a given text. Use these guidelines to help you decide on which items to focus first for your research project. Other items of relevance to your work are in the general library book collection and in journals.

Most of these items are available in the Library, online, or online via your library registration. Items without a link, or without a call number, may be available through inter-library loan. Make sure you attempt to obtain those items as early as possible.

To search the list below by a particular keyword, use the "Find" feature under the "Edit" menu of your browser.

AAA. Code of Ethics of the American Anthropological Association, approved June 1998. Available at:

ABU-LUGHOD, Lila. 1996. “The interpretation of culture(s) after television.” Representations 59: 109-133.

ADORNO, Theodor, and HORKHEIMER, Max. “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception”. Available at:

ALIA, Valerie. 1999. Un/Covering the North: News, Media and Aboriginal People. Vancouver: UBC Press. [UCCB E 78 C2 A45 1999] [ON RESERVE]
Introduction, 3-12

1. Southern Exposure: Portrayals of the North, 13-35
2. Communications in Context: Language, Literacy, Politics and Education, 36-59
3. The Evolution of Communications in the North, 60-96
4. Technology and the Circumpolar Village: Networking and Broadcasting the Future, 97-121
5. Case Study 1: Communications in the Yukon, 122-139
6. Case Study 2: Print Media Coverage from Up Here and Outside / Brian Higgins and Valerie Alia, 140-159
7. Concluding Thoughts, Future Directions, 160-168
A. Native News Network of Canada Statement of Principles, 169-171
B. Brief to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 172-173
C. Catalogue of Northern Community Radio, 174-177
D. Catalogue
of Northern Newspapers and Magazines, 178-185
E. Catalogue of Northern Internet Resources, 186-195
F. Catalogue of Broadcast Sites for Television Northern Canada (TVNC), 196

ALLEN, Susan L., Ed. 1994. Media Anthropology: Informing Global Citizens. New York: Bergin & Garvey.

ALTHEIDE, David L. 1996. Qualitative Media Analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. [UCCB P 91.3 A48 1996] [ON RESERVE]
1. Plugged in research
2. Ethnographic document analysis
3. Process of qualitative document analysis
4. Newspapers, magazines and electronic documents
5. Electronic reality
6. Tracking discourse
7. Field notes and other data.
Publisher comments:
In order to prepare a successful research project, a qualitative researcher often must consult various types of media documents. How to obtain, categorize and analyze different media documents is the subject of this book. The author looks at traditional primary documents such as newspapers and magazines, but also at more recent forms like television newscasts and cyberspace.

AMIT, Vered. 2000. “Introduction: Constructing the Field”. In Vered Amit (ed), Constructing the Field: Ethnographic Fieldwork in the Contemporary World, pp. 1-18. London: Routledge.

ASKEW, Kelly, and WILK, Richard R. 2002. The Anthropology of Media: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell. [UCCB P 94.6 A574 2002] [ON RESERVE]
Introduction: Kelly Askew and Richard R. Wilk. 1-14
1. The Medium is the Message: Marshall McLuhan. 18-26.
Ch 2. The Technology and the Society: Raymond Williams. 27-40.
Ch 5. Save, Save the Lore!: Erika Brady. 56-72.
Ch 7. The Color of Sex: Postwar Photographic Histories of Race and Gender: Catherine Lutz and Jane Collins. 92-116.
Ch 8. The Imperial Imaginary: Ella Shohat and Robert Stam. 117-147.
Ch 10. Hollywood and the USA: Hortense Powdermaker. 161-171.
Ch 11. Yoruba Photography: How the Yoruba See Themselves: Stephen F. Sprague. 172-186
Ch 13. Mediating Culture: Indigenous Media, Ethnographic Film, and the Production of Identity: Faye Ginsburg. 210-236.
Ch 15. The Tongan Tradition of Going to the Movies: Elizabeth Hahn. 258-269.
Ch 16. Rambo's Wife Saves the Day: Subjugating the Gaze and Subverting the Narrative in a Papua New Guinean Swamp: Don Kulick and Margaret Willson. 270-285.
Ch 17. 'It's Destroying a Whole Generation': Television and Moral Discourse in Belize: Rick Wilk. 286-298.
Ch 18. National Texts and Gendered Lives: An Ethnography of Television Viewers in a North Indian City: Purnima Mankekar. 299-322.
Ch 19. Image-Based Culture: Advertising and Popular Culture: Sut Jhally. 327-336.
Ch 20. The Global and the Local in International Communications: Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi. 337-356.
Ch 22. The Objects of Soap Opera: Egyptian Television and the Cultural Politics of Modernity: Lila Abu-Lughod. 376-393.

ATTALLAH, Paul, and SHADE, Leslie Regan, eds. 2002. Mediascapes: New Patterns in Canadian Communication. Scarborough, Ont: Thomson Nelson.
Part 1: The Institutional Context
Introduction: Paul Attallah, 1-3
1. Considering Critical Communication Studies in Canada. Sheryl N. Hamilton, McGill University, 4-26
2. A Not-So-British Invasion: Cultural Studies in Canada. Anne-Marie Kinahan, Carleton University, 27-45
3. Knowledge Matters: The Institutionalization of Communication Studies in Canada. Michael Dorland, Carleton University, 46-64
4. Coming of Age: A Past Forgotten and a Present with a Future: Communication Studies in Quebec. Roger de la Garde and Francois Yelle, UQAM, 65-86
Part II: Audiences, 87-89
Introduction: Paul Attallah
5. The Audience. Paul Attallah, Carleton University, 90-106
6. Sipping Starbucks: (Re)Considering Communicative Media. Charlene Elliott, Carleton University, 107-119
7. Empirical Approaches to the Audience. Gord Lucke, University of Ottawa, 120-135
8. Good Kids/Bad Kids: What’s a Culture to Do? Eileen Saunders, Carleton University, 136-158
Part III: Communication Industries
Introduction: Leslie Regan Shade, 159-160
9. The Canadian Radio Industry. Pierre Belanger, University of Ottawa. 161-178
10. Canadian Film. Gary Evans, University of Ottawa, 179-196
11. A Brief History of the Music Industry. Don Wallace, Carleton University, 197-215
12. Television in Canada. Paul Attallah and Derek Foster, Carleton University, 216-234
13. Computers and the Internet. Susan Bryant, University of Windsor; and Richard Smith, Simon Fraser University, 235-251
14. Online Journalism. Mike Gasher, Concordia University, 252-270
Part IV: Social and Policy Issues
Introduction: Leslie Regan Shade, 271
15. Globalization, Communication and Diaspora. Karim Karim, Carleton University, 272-294
16. First Peoples’ Television in Canada’s North: A Case Study of the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network. Lorna Roth, Carleton University, 295-310 [ON RESERVE]
17. Convergence. Matthew Fraser, Ryerson, 311-324
18. Lost in Cyberspace. Dwayne Winseck, Carleton University, 325-342
19. Intellectual Property and Copyright Issues in the Global Economy. Daniel Downes, McGill University, 343-359
20. Privacy and New Media. Valerie Steeves, Carleton University, 360-379
21. Media and Politics. Anne McGrath, University of Calgary, 380-396
22. O-Canada: What Happens When the Mouse meets the Mounties? Leslie Regan Shade, University of Ottawa, 397-410
Publisher comments:
“Mediascapes provides students with a comprehensive introduction to Canadian communications, media, and popular culture from a diverse range of perspectives. A current, representative collection of dedicated readings, the text breaks down the field of communication into usable bits while still reaching far beyond the scope of other texts to represent cutting-edge approaches to the field of Canadian communications. Mediascapes deals with Canadian media and communication in the context of hot topics such as globalization, cultural diversity, and copyright and privacy. Using case studies that are current and relevant to today’s students, the book explores a real and contemporary experience of communication and media. It features informed discussion of established and emerging technologies, policies, and industry trends.”

BARKER, Chris. 1999. Television, Globalization and Cultural Identities. Buckingham, U.K.; Philadelphia, Pa.: Open University Press. [PN 1992.6 B352 1999] [ON RESERVE]
Introduction, 1-8.
Ch. 2, Global Television and Global Culture, 33-59
Ch. 3, The Construction and Representation of Race and Nation, 60-85
Ch. 4, Sexed Subjects and Gendered Representations, 86-107
Ch. 5, Audiences, Identity and Television Talk, 108-140

BARWELL, Graham, and BOWLES, Kate. 2000. “Border Crossings: The Internet and the Dislocation of Citizenship”. In David Bell and Barbara M. Kennedy (eds), The Cybercultures Reader, Pp.702-711. London: Routledge. [ON RESERVE]

BAUDRILLARD, Jean. “Requiem for the Media”.
Available at:

BELL, David. 2001. An Introduction to Cybercultures. London: Routledge.
Ch. 6, “Identities in Cyberculture”, 113-136.

BELL, David, and KENNEDY, Barbara M. 2000. The Cybercultures Reader. London: Routledge. [UCCB QA 76.9 C66 C898]
1. Approaching Cyberculture
2. Popular Cybercultures
3. Cybersubcultures
4. Cyberfeminisms
5. Cybersexual
6. Cyberbodies
7. Post[cyber]bodies
8. Scaling cyberspaces

9. Cybercolonization

BROWN, Michael F. 1998. “Can Culture Be Copyrighted?” Current Anthropology 39 (2): 193-222. Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

BURKHALTER, Byron. 1999. “Reading Race Online: Discovering Racial Identity in Usenet Discussions”. In Marc A. Smith and Peter Kollock (eds), Communities in Cyberspace, pp. 60-75. London: Routledge. [ON RESERVE]

CASTELLS, Manuel. 2000. The Rise of the Network Society. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ch. 5, “The Culture of Real Virtuality: the Integration of Electronic Communications, the End of the Mass Audience, and the Rise of Interactive Networks”, pp. 355-406. [ON RESERVE]

CHANDLER, Daniel. “Marxist Media Theory”.
Available at:

CHANDLER, Dabiel. “Technological or Media Determinism”.
Available at:

CHEN, Wenhong; BOASE, Jeffrey; and, WELLMAN, Barry. 2002. “The Global Villagers: Comparing Internet Users and Uses Around the World”. In Barry Wellman and Caroline Haythornwaite (eds), The Internet in Everyday Life, Pp. 74-113. Oxford: Blackwell. [ON RESERVE]

CHRISTENSEN, Neil Blair. 2003. Inuit in Cyberspace: Embedding Offline Identities Online. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
See also:
Introduction: Shifting Boundaries, 11-24
Modern tradition
Escape cyberspace
Old frontiers in new space
1. Going Nowhere to get Everywhere, 24-44
Online survey
E-mail interviews
Content analysis of Web pages
Wanted: practical method
2. (Re)producing the Arctic in Cyberspace, 45-66 [ON RESERVE]
The myth of cyberspace
Peripherality on the Net
Three regions: Canadian Arctic, Greenland and Alaska
Bridging a gap?
3. A Common Web of Difference and Similarity, 67-96
Recursive dynamics: social boundaries and cultural stuff
Us and them: self-identify by identifying others
Taloyoak in cyberspace
Native language
Intelligible boundaries
4. Perceiving Cyberspace, 97-106
Engaging with the world
Disengaging from abstract theory
Continuity? Accept Change and Understand Context, 107-113
Publisher Comments:
“Inuit are often stigmatized as happy hunter-gatherers or sad victims of (post)modernity. A simplification that is inextricably linked to a supposed, but nevertheless misunderstood, conflict between indigenousness on one hand and wage economy and modern technology on the other: such as it was done in the anti-sealing campaigns of the 1980s. Even though Inuit identities and cultures are often thought of in a museological context by outsiders, and thus find little room for contemporary negotiation, their contents and dynamics are subject to constant change, and have always been so. In this cyber-ethnography, Neil Blair Christensen explores the processes by which a wide selection of personal, local, cultural and national identities are expressed and understood on the Internet. The different Inuit peoples of the circumpolar Arctic have always taken active part in the world, but their contemporary use of Internet(s) has affected even more their relative isolation - one that comes from living in a peripheral region of the world. Yet, Inuit and others are constructing web pages with social and physical references that sustain an imagined Arctic remoteness; a logic that seems to be a key aspect of Inuit identities and cultures. The book brings together in analysis and discussion the realities of contemporary Inuit, the myth of cyberspace and a selection of dynamic strategies for identification. It concludes that Inuit dynamically remain Inuit, in all their diversity, regardless of an imagined compression of time and space; their use of changing technologies, or participation in enlarged social networks.”

CROTEAU, David, and HOYNES, William. 2003. Media Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
I. Media/Society
1. Media and the Social World, 3-30 see:
II. Production: The Media Industry and the Social World
2. The Economics of the Media Industry, 33-76
3. Political Influence on Media, 77-120
4. Media Organizations and Professionals, 121-156
III. Content: Media Representations of the Social World
5. Media and Ideology, 159-194
6. Social Inequality and Media Representation, 195-228
IV. Audiences: Meaning and Influence
7. Media Influence and the Political World, 231-264
8. Active Audiences and the Construction of Meaning, 265-298 [ON RESERVE]
9. Media Technology and Social Change, 299-334
V. Globalization and the Future
10. Media in a Changing Global Culture, 335-372

CULTURAL SURVIVAL QUARTERLY. 1998. Aboriginal Media, Aboriginal Control. 22 (2). (A collection of full text online articles--see especially the following articles--Introduction: Media and Aboriginal Culture; An Evolving Relationship; Electronic Smoke Signals: Native American Radio in the United States; Indigenous Journalists: Two Provocative Provinces, Worlds Apart; Seeing Ourselves, Being Ourselves: Broadcasting Aboriginal Television in Canada; Media and the Preservation of Culture in Africa; Community Radio in India; Indigenous Peoples and Media Ethics in Canada; Talking the Talk on Indigenous Radio; The U'wa Struggle for Resguardo Unico)

CULTURAL SURVIVAL QUARTERLY. 1998. The Internet and Indigenous Groups. 21 (4). (A collection of full text online articles on Internet uses by indigenous peoples--see especially the following articles: The Internet and Indigenous Groups; Latin America: The Internet and Indigenous Texts; Use of Internet Communication Among the Sami People; Standing Stones in Cyberspace: The Oneida Indian Nation's Territory on the Web; Olelo Hawai'i: A Rich Oral History, a Bright Digital Future)

DAVILA, Arlene. 1998. “El Kiosko Budweiser: The Making of a ‘National’ Television Show in Puerto Rico.” American Ethnologist 25 (3): 452-470.

DAVIS, Jessica L., and GANDY, Oscar H., Jr. 1999. “Racial Identity and Media Orientation: Exploring the Nature of Constraint”. Journal of Black Studies 29 (3): 367-397. Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

DICKEY, Sara. 1997. “Anthropology and its Contributions to Studies of Mass Media”.  International Social Science Journal 49: 413-427.

DOMINY, Michele D. 1993. “Photojournalism, Anthropology, and Ethnographic Authority”. Cultural Anthropology 8 (3): 317-337. Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

DOUGLAS, Susan J. Where the Girls Are: Growing Up Female with the Mass Media. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1995. [UCCB P 94.5 W652 U634 1995] [ON RESERVE]
Introduction, 3-20
Ch. 1, Fractured Fairy Tales, 21-42
Ch. 2, Mama Said, 43-60
Ch. 3, Sex and the Single Teenager, 61-82
Ch. 4, Why the Shirelles Mattered, 83-98
Ch. 5, She's Got the Devil in Her Heart, 99-122
Ch. 6, Genies and Witches, 123-138
Ch. 7, Throwing Out Our Bras, 139-162
Ch. 8, I Am Woman, Hear Me Roar, 163-192
Ch. 9, The Rise of the Bionic Bimbo, 193-220
Ch. 10, The ERA as Catfight, 221-244
Ch. 11, Narcissism as Liberation, 245-268
Ch. 12, I'm not a Feminist, But..., 269-194

Notes from a reviewer:
"The supposedly serious cultural documents of teenage rebellion, like Rebel Without a Cause, The Wild One, or Blackboard Jungle, emphasized male alienation and malaise." (5) "As we consider the metamorphosis that millions of women ... experienced over the past three decades, we immediately confront the well-known female yin and yang of solid confidence and abject insecurity. In a variety of ways the mass media make us the cultural schizophrenics we are today.... Our collective history of interacting with and being shaped by the mass media has engendered in many women a kind of cultural identity crisis." (8) "To explain this schizophrenia, we must reject the notion that popular culture for girls and women didn't matter.... The jigsaw pieces of our inner selves have moved around in relation to the jigsaw imagery of the media, and it is the ongoing rearrangement of these shards on the public screens of America, and the private screens of our minds, that is the forgotten story of American culture over the past thirty-five years." (9) "Exhilarating, infuriating, full of hope, full of despair, 1968 had me on a constant psychic yo-yo.... I was convinced that our destiny was utterly out of our control and in the hands of Satan himself, working through LBJ, the Chicago police, and General Westmoreland. I felt this range of intense feelings not out in the streets but in my living room, watching history transmitted to me over the television. I was not yet in college in the spring and summer of 1968; I wasn't a member of any of the various oppositional political groups that organized against and did battle with government authorities. I was, like the vast majority of young people, still only a spectator. Yet spectatorship in 1968 -- even in the confines of your own home -- was a politicizing activity." (153)

EICKELMAN, Dale F. and ANDERSON, Jon W. 1999. New Media in the Muslim World: The Emerging Public Sphere. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. [UCCB BP 185.7 N48] [ON RESERVE]
Publisher Comments:
“How are today's newest media—fax machines, satellite television, and the Internet—and new uses of older media—audio and video cassettes, cinema, pulp fiction, the telephone, and the press—reshaping belief, authority, and community in the Muslim world?”

ENZENSBERGER, Hans Magnus. 1970. “Constituents of a Theory of the Media”. New Left Review (64) Nov-Dec: 13-36.
Available at:

FLERAS, Augie. 2003. Mass Media Communication in Canada. Scarborough, Ont: Thomson Nelson.
SECTION ONE: Framing Media, 1-4
Chapter 1 Taking Media Seriously, 5-31
Chapter 2 What are Media?, 32-58 [ON RESERVE]
Chapter 3 Media Outputs: Effects and Impacts, 59-98
SECTION TWO: Media Processes, 99-101
Chapter 4 Newscasting: “Framing Reality”, 102-130
Chapter 5 TV: Programming as Persuasion, 131-169
Chapter 6 Advertising: Manufacturing Discontent, 170-212
Chapter 7 Films and Moviemaking: Commodifying Culture, 213-244
Chapter 8 “Networking Society”: Communicating Online, 245-274
SECTION THREE: Media in Society, 275-277
Chapter 9 Media, Minorities, and Multiculturalism, 278-309
Chapter 10 Gendered Media, 310-342
Chapter 11 Public Broadcasting, 343-372
Publisher Comments:
“Mass Media Communication in Canada deals with the politics of persuasion in mediating the relationship between media and a rapidly changing and increasingly diverse Canada. The text focuses on the ideology and political workings of media, rather than the policies and institutions themselves. It deals with the social dimensions of media communication, presenting media as a form of persuasion and a system of power. The focus is on media in Canadian society, with particular emphasis on the relationship of media to race, gender, and society-building. Mass Media Communication in Canada is divided into three sections: Framing the Media examines mainstream media in terms of what they are, what they are mandated to do, what they really do, and how they go about doing it. Media Processes explains how media work, from how newscasting constructs reality to how specific media forms (TV programming, advertising, cinema and new digital media) operate. Media in Society looks specifically through case studies and suggested debates at some of the main issues in Canadian media (gender, minorities and multiculturalism, and ‘Canada-building’)”.

FLERAS, Augie, and LOCK KUNZ, Jean. 2001, Media and Minorities: Representing Diversity in a Multicultural Canada. Toronto: Thomson Educational Pub. [UCCB P 94.5 M55 C33 2001] [ON RESERVE]
1. Multicultural in Canada
2. The Media and Racism
3. Mainstream Media: Discourse in Defence of Ideology
4. Newscasting: "Problematizing " Minorities
5. 'Whoâs On?ä: Programming Minorities
6. Advertising: "Diversity Sells"
7. Filming the Other: Through the Prism of Whiteness

8. Miscasting Minorities: Patterns and Causes
9. "Multiculturalizing" the Mainstream Media
10. Re-Priming the Relationship

GARTON, L., HAYTHORNTHWAITE, C.; and, WELLMAN, B. 1997. “Studying Online Social Networks”. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3(1) June.
Available at:

GILLESPIE, Marie. 1995. Television, Ethnicity and Cultural Change. London: Routledge. [UCCB PN 1992.3 G7 G46 1995] [ON RESERVE]

Introduction, 1-28
     Cultural change: British, Asian and black identities
     Remaking ethnicity
     Postmodernism and identity politics
     About this book
Ch. 1, Southall: Chota Punjab, West London, 29-47
     Social profile
     Youth culture(s)
     Arranging marriages
     Wild West London? Southall gangs
Ch. 2, Living Fieldwork--Writing Ethnography, 48-75
     The Southall Youth Survey (1989-1990)
     Ethnography and TV audience research
     TV talk
     Phases of fieldwork
     The researcher and her informants
     Writing ethnography in the field
Ch. 3, Local Use of the Media: Negotiating Culture and Identity, 76-108
     Family viewing patterns
     Technology and tradition
     Representations of/from India

     Devotional viewing: 'sacred soaps'
     Watching 'western soaps'
     Local news media
     'Not the turkey type': Christmas and TV
     Dirty Dancing at Diwali

Ch. 4, Coming of Age in Southall: TV News Talk, 109-141
     Being chust and siani
     'Here' and 'there'
     'Racial' and religious conflict: Local news
     National and class politics: Thatcher and the poll tax
     Ambivalent positionings: The Gulf War
Ch. 5, Neighbors and Gossip: Kinship, Courtship and Community, 142-174
     Soap talk
     Southall gossip and rumour
     Soap narration and gossip
     Courtship and marriage
Ch. 6, Cool Bodies: TV Ad Talk, 175-204
     Teenage consumer culture and TV advertising
     The hierarchy of styles
     Body beauty
     You can't beat the feeling: Coca Cola and Utopia
     Fast food and fasting: Eating, autonomy and the Big Mac
Conclusion, 205-209

GINSBURG, Faye. 1994. “Culture/Media: A Mild Polemic”. Anthropology Today 10 (2): 5-15. Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

GINSBURG, Faye. 1994. “Embedded Aesthetics: Creating a Discursive Space for Indigenous Media”. Cultural Anthropology 9 (3): 365-382. Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

GINSBURG, Faye. 1991. “Indigenous Media: Faustian Contract or Global Village?”. Cultural Anthropology 6 (1): 92-112.
Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

GINSBURG, Faye D.; ABU-LUGHOD, Lila; and, LARKIN, Brian. 2002. Media Worlds: Anthropology on New Terrain. Berkeley: University of California Press. [UCCB P 94.6 M426 2002] [ON RESERVE]
I. Cultural Activism and Minority Claims
Faye Ginsburg, "Screen Memories: Resignifying the Traditional in Indigenous Media", 39-57
Harald E.L. Prins, "Visual Media and the Primitivist Perplex: Colonial Fantasies, Indigenous Imagination, and Advocacy in North America", 58-74
Terence Turner, "Representation, Politics, and Cultural Imagination in Indigenous Video: General Points and Kayapo Examples", 75-89
Meg McLagan, "Spectacles of Difference: Cultural Activism and the Mass Mediation of Tibet", 90-114
II. The Cultural Politics of Nation-States
Lila Abu-Lughod, "Egyptian Melodrama--Technology of the Modern Subject?", 115-133
Purnima Mankekar, "Epic Contests: Television and Religious Identity in India", 134-151
Annette Hamilton, "The National Picture: Thai Media and Cultural Identity", 152-170
Richard R. Wilk, "Television, Time, and the National Imaginary in Belize", 171-188
III. Transnational Circuits
Mayfair Mei-hui Yang, "Mass Media and Transnational Subjectivity in Shanghai: Notes on (Re)Cosmopolitanism in a Chinese Metropolis", 189-210
Ruth Mandel, "A Marshall Plan of the Mind: The Political Economy of a Kazakh Soap Opera", 211-228
Louisa Schein, "Mapping Hmong Media in Diasporic Space", 229-246
IV. The Social Sites of Production
Barry Dornfeld, "Putting American Public Television Documentary in Its Places", 247-263
Arlene Dávila, "Culture in the Ad World: Producing the Latin Look", 264-280
Tejaswini Ganti, "'And Yet My Heart Is Still Indian': The Bombay Film Industry and the (H)Indianization of Hollywood", 281-300
Jeff D. Himpele, "Arrival Scenes: Complicity and Media Ethnography in the Bolivian Public Sphere", 301-318
V. The Social Life of Technology
Brian Larkin, "The Materiality of Cinema Theaters in Northern Nigeria", 319-336
Debra Spitulnik, "Mobile Machines and Fluid Audiences: Rethinking Reception through Zambian Radio Culture", 337-354
Christopher Pinney, "The Indian Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction; Or, What Happens When Peasants 'Get Hold' of Images", 355-369
Mark Hobart, "Live or Dead? Televising Theater in Bali", 370-382
Rosalind C. Morris, "A Room with a Voice: Mediation and Mediumship in Thailand's Information Age", 383-398
Publisher Comments:
“This groundbreaking volume showcases the exciting work emerging from the ethnography of media, a burgeoning new area in anthropology that expands both social theory and ethnographic fieldwork to examine the way media--film, television, video--are used in societies around the globe, often in places that have been off the map of conventional media studies. The contributors, key figures in this new field, cover topics ranging from indigenous media projects around the world to the unexpected effects of state control of media to the local impact of film and television as they travel transnationally. Their essays, mostly new work produced for this volume, bring provocative new theoretical perspectives grounded in cross-cultural ethnographic realities to the study of media.”

GRIPSRUD, Jostein. 2002. Understanding Media Culture. Abingdon, Oxon: Hodder Arnold.
Part 1 – Audiences and the Media
Ch. 1. Identity – The Media and Our Understanding of Ourselves
Ch. 2. Influence – The Media’s Power and Our Own
Ch. 3. Distinctions – Social Difference, Lifestyle and Taste
Part 2 – Perspectives on Media Texts
Ch. 4. Semiotics, Signs, Codes and Cultures, 99-127 [ON RESERVE]
Ch. 5. Hermeneutics: Interpretations and Understanding
Ch. 6. Rhetoric – Language, Situation, Purpose
Ch. 7. Narratology – The Forms and Functions of Stories
Part 3 – Production and its Social Conditions
Ch. 8. Public Sphere and Democracy: Ideals and Realities
Ch. 9. Broadcasting: Technology, Society and Policy
Ch. 10. Production: Creativity, Contexts and Power.

HAKKEN, David. 1999. Cyborgs@Cyberspace: An Ethnographer Looks to the Future. London: Routledge.
See Introduction chapter at
1. Introduction, 1-15
            What are we to make of cyberspace?
            Conceptual presumptions
            Key issues in cyberspace ethnography
            Structure of the book
            Cyberspace research narrative
2. An Alternative to 'Computer Revolution' Thought, 15-36
            Has there been a computer revolution?
            Reasons for being a computer revolution skeptic
            An alternative framework for assessing AIT’s contribution to social change
            An evolutionary approach to AIT and social change
3. Doing Ethnography in Cyberspace, 37-66 [ON RESERVE]
            Ethnographic and ‘natural’ science ways of knowing
            Doing cyberspace ethnography anthropologically
            Examples of Anthropological cyberspace ethnography
            Epistemological challenges in anthropological cyberspace ethnography
            Conclusion: issues in classical and cyberspace ethnography
4. The Entity Problem: What Carries Culture in Cyberspace? 69-92
            The entity problem
            Conceptualizing culture-bearing entities
            A cyborgic model of human mental activity
            Cyborgic entities and cultural processes
            An alternative cyborgic model of culture, based on the ethnography of information system management
            Entities in cyberspace: actors, creoles, objects?
            Self-identity in cyberspace
            Conclusion: embodied imaginings
5. The Ethnography of Mid-Range Social Relations in Cyberspace: Community, Region, Organization and Civil Society, 93-128
            Social relations in cyberspace
            Contemporary issues in meso-social relations
            The ethnography of cyberspace communities and regions
            Computing and workspace cultures
            The ethnography of organizational culture in cyberspace
            The recent emergence of a cyber-culture-facture stage in the labor process
            Conclusion: Virtual, or virtually no work/community?
6. Macro-Social Relations and Structure in Cyberspace, 129- 178
            National/cultural aspects of computing
            Transnational CMC
            Scandinavia and national/cultural differences in constructing cyberspace
            Neo-classical approaches to cyberspace in economics
            Alternative #1: Technicist political economies of cyberspace
            Alternative #2: Substantive political economies of cyberspace
7. Knowledge in Cyberspace and the Practice of Ethnography, 179-212
            The knowledge question in cyberspace
            A cyborg anthropology alternative: realist actor network theory
            The practice question in cyberspace ethnography
            Policy implications of applied cyberspace ethnography
8. Conclusions, 213-228
            Empirical results: what can we say about cyberspace
            Analytic conclusions
            On the science question, or reconstructing techno-science practice
            Implications of a cyberspace ethnography-based reconstructed techno-science practice
Publisher Comments:
“Cyborgs@Cyberspace? is a compelling and innovative analysis of technology from a cultural perspective. It turns an anthropological eye on the growing phenomenon of cyberspace to address some of the pressing questions of the Computer Age: How significant are the social practices which emerge from our increasing use of advanced information technology? Are the cultural infrastructures of cyberspace destined to be the primary arena of human activity in the future? And what are the possibilities and dangers that arise from our use and misuse of computer culture? Arguing that humans have always been technological as well as cultural beings, David Hakken calls for a fundamental rethinking of the traditional separation of anthropology and technical studies. Drawing on three decades of research on contemporary technological societies, this book outlines a fresh way of thinking about technology and offers an ethical and political response to the challenge of truly living as 'cyborgs' in the age of cyberspace.”

HANKS, W. F. 1989. “Text and Textuality”. Annual Review of Anthropology 18: 95-127. Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

HERMAN, Edward S, and CHOMSKY, Noam. 1988. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York : Pantheon Books. [UCCB P 95.82 U6 H47 1988] [ON RESERVE]
Publisher Comments:
“In this pathbreaking work, now with a new introduction, Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky show that, contrary to the usual image of the news media as cantankerous, obstinate, and ubiquitous in their search for truth and defense of justice, in their actual practice they defend the economic, social, and political agendas of the privileged groups that dominate domestic society, the state, and the global order. Based on a series of case studies—including the media’s dichotomous treatment of “worthy” versus “unworthy” victims, “legitimizing” and “meaningless” Third World elections, and devastating critiques of media coverage of the U.S. wars against Indochina—Herman and Chomsky draw on decades of criticism and research to propose a Propaganda Model to explain the media’s behavior and performance. Their new introduction updates the Propaganda Model and the earlier case studies, and it discusses several other applications. These include the manner in which the media covered the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement and subsequent Mexican financial meltdown of 1994-1995, the media’s handling of the protests against the World Trade Organization, World Bank, and International Monetary Fund in 1999 and 2000, and the media’s treatment of the chemical industry and its regulation. What emerges from this work is a powerful assessment of how propagandistic the U.S. mass media are, how they systematically fail to live up to their self-image as providers of the kind of information that people need to make sense of the world, and how we can understand their function in a radically new way.”

HINE, Christine. 2000. Virtual Ethnography. London: Sage.
1. Introduction
2. Internet as Culture and Cultural Artefact
3. The Virtual Objects of Ethnography, pp. 41-66[ON RESERVE]
4. The Making of a Virtual Ethnography
5. Time, Space and Technology
6. Authenticity and Identity in Internet Contexts
7. Reflection

INNESS, Sherrie A. 1999. Tough Girls: Women Warriors and Wonder Women in Popular Culture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [UCCB P 94.5 W65 I56 1999] [ON RESERVE]
Publisher Comments:
“Tough girls are everywhere these days. Whether it is Ripley battling a swarm of monsters in the Aliens trilogy or Captain Janeway piloting the starship Voyager through space in the continuing Star Trek saga, women strong in both body and mind have become increasingly popular in the films, television series, advertisements, and comic books of recent decades. In Tough Girls, Sherrie A. Inness explores the changing representations of women in all forms of popular media and what those representations suggest about shifting social mores. She begins her examination of tough women in American popular culture with three popular television shows of the 1960s and '70s--The Avengers, Charlie's Angels, and The Bionic Woman--and continues through such contemporary pieces as a recent ad for Calvin Klein jeans and current television series such as The X-files and Xena: Warrior Princess. Although all these portrayals show women who can take care of themselves in ways that have historically been seen as uniquely male, they also variously undercut women's toughness. She argues that even some of the strongest depictions of women have perpetuated women's subordinate status, using toughness in complicated ways to break or bend gender stereotypes while simultaneously affirming them.”

INTINTOLI, Michael James. 1984. Taking Soaps Seriously: The WorId of GUIDING LIGHT. New York: Praeger.
FULL TEXT available online at:

IWGIA (International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs). 2003. Indigenous Peoples and Information Technology. Indigenous Affairs, 2. (The articles contained in this collection are not available online, but a copy is available on Reserve. Articles include the following: International, Paths of Indigenous Cyber-Activism, by Kyra Landzelius; Americas, Perspectives on the Indigenous Tradition / New Technology Interface, by Greg Young-Ing; The Zapatista Rebellion and the Use of Technology: Indian Women Online? by Marisa Belausteguigoitia; Weaving Tapestries of Solidarity with Virtual Thread. Information and Communication Technologies at the Service of Grassroots Indigenous Women in Bolivia, by Nidia Bustillos Rodríguez; Caribbean Aboriginals Online: Digitized Culture, Networked Representation, by Maximilian C. Forte; Navajo Cyber-Sovereignty, by Frances Vitali and Jean Whitehorse; Arctic, Samenet - The Sámi Information and Communication Network, by Michael Kuhmunen.)

JEFFREY, Liss. N.d. “Rethinking Audiences for Cultural Industries: Implications for Canadian Research”.

JENKINS, Alan. 1986. “Disappearing World Goes to China: A Production Study of Anthropological Films”. Anthropology Today 2 (3): 6-13. Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

JOHNSON, A. J. "A New Understanding of Culture and Communication: The Impact of Technology on Indigenous Peoples--A Pathfinder". (This resource points to locations on the web where one can find materials addressing the following questions: Where can I find sources that give a general overview of the effect of technology on indigenous peoples? What uses of new technology are most beneficial to indigenous groups? What are some problems Native Americans have encountered in gaining access to telecommunications technology, and what solutions are being explored? How have indigenous people used new technology to preserve, promote and teach their history and culture? How has communication between tribe members or members of different indigenous groups changed due technology? What are some organizations and other resources that promote utilization of technology in indigenous communities?)

JONES, Steve G. 1999. “Studying the Net: Intricacies and Issues”. In Steve Jones (ed), Doing Internet Research: Critical Issues and Methods for Examining the Net, pp. 1-28. London: Sage. [ON RESERVE]

JONES, Steve G. 1998. “The Internet and its Social Landscape”. In Steve G. Jones (ed), Virtual Culture: Identity and Communication in Cybersociety, Pp. 7-35. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. [ON RESERVE]

JONES, Steve (ed). 1999. Doing Internet Research: Critical Issues and Methods for Examining the Net. London: Sage.
Introduction: Forests, Trees and Internet Research, by James T. Costigan
Chapter 1: Doing Internet Research, by Steve Jones[ON RESERVE]
Chapter 2: Complementary Explorative Data Analysis: The Reconciliation of Quantitative and Qualitative Principles, by Fay Sudweeks and Simeon J. Simoff
Chapter 3: Recontextualizing "Cyberspace": Methodological Considerations for Online Research, by Lori Kendall
Chapter 4: Studying Online Social Networks, by Laura Garton, Caroline Haythornwaite, and Barry Wellman
Chapter 5: Cybertalk and the Method of Instances, by Norman K. Denzin
Chapter 6: Configuring As a Mode of Rhetorical Analysis, by James J. Sosnoski
Chapter 7: From Paper-and-Pencil to Screen-and-Keyboard: Toward a Methodology for Survey Research on the Internet, by Diane F. Witmer, Robert W. Colman ,Sandra Lee Katzman
Chapter 8: Measuring Internet Audiences: Patrons of an Online Art Museum, by Margaret McLaughlin, Steve Goldberg, Nicole Ellison, and Jason Lucas
Chapter 9: Analyzing the Web: Directions and Challenges, by Ananda Mitra and Elisa Cohen
Chapter 10: There is a there there: Notes toward a definition of cybercommunity, by Jan Fernback
Chapter 11: Researching and Creating Community Networks, by Teresa M. Harrison and Timothy Stephen
Chapter 12: Beyond Netiquette: The Ethics of doing naturalistic discourse research on the Internet, by Barbara F. Sharf
Chapter 13: Thinking the Internet: Cultural Studies vs. The Millennium, by Jonathan Sterne

KARIM, Karim H. 2000. The Islamic Peril: Media and Global Violence. New York: Black Rose Books. [UCCB BP 52 K37 2000] [ON RESERVE]
Chapter 1: Violence and the Media
Chapter 2: Jihad
Chapter 3: Orientalist Imaginaries
Chapter 4: Assassins, Kidnappers, Hostages
Chapter 5: The Rites of Reporting a Hijacking
Chapter 6: Dispatches from the Holy Land
Chapter 7: Constructing a Post-Soviet Threat
Chapter 8: Returning to a Millennial Struggle
Chapter 9: Covering Conflicts in Former Communist Territories
Chapter 10: Towards Informed and Conscientious Reporting

Publisher Comments:

“In an age when globalization is supposedly drawing all humanity together, Islam is viewed as fomenting a clash of civilizations. Terrorism, hostage-taking, hijacking and religious wars have become synonymous with the identity of Muslims and these narratives are supported by North-based media networks which have maintained global hegemony. The Islamic Peril explores the lack of historical and cultural understanding in the mass media, such as the deeply contested ideas about jihad among Muslims. It studies coverage of conflicts involving Muslims in the Middle East, the Caucasus, the Balkans, and the West, and demonstrates the resilience of core European images of Muslims that have continued to recur in depictions of Islam for over a millennium. Karim believes that the gulf between Islam and the West must be bridged and that the media have an ethical obligation to provide coverage while avoiding generalizations and stereotypes.

KEITH, Michael C. 1995. Signals in the Air: Native Broadcasting in America. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. [UCCB PN 1991.8 I53 K45 1995] [ON RESERVE]
See especially:
Ch. 2, Arrow with Voices: Evolution of Native Stations, 15-26
Ch. 5, Waves for Kekewh: Impact of Indigenous Broadcasting, 97-112

KITCH, Carolyn L. 2001. The Girl on the Magazine Cover: The Origins of Visual Stereotypes in American Mass Media. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. [UCCB P 94.5 W652 U655 2001] [ON RESERVE]
Chapter 1. From True Woman to New Woman
Chapter 2. The American Girl
Chapter 3. Dangerous Women and the Crisis of Masculinity
Chapter 4. Alternative Visions
Chapter 5. Patriotic Images
Chapter 6. The Flapper
Chapter 7. The Modern American Family
Chapter 8. The Advertising Connection
Publisher Comments:
“From the Gibson Girl to the flapper, from the vamp to the New Woman, Carolyn Kitch traces mass media images of women to their historical roots on magazine covers, unveiling the origins of gender stereotypes in early-twentieth-century American culture. Kitch examines the years from 1895 to 1930 as a time when the first wave of feminism intersected with the rise of new technologies and media for the reproduction and dissemination of visual images. Access to suffrage, higher education, the professions, and contraception broadened women's opportunities, but the images found on magazine covers emphasized the role of women as consumers: suffrage was reduced to spending, sexuality to sexiness, and a collective women's movement to individual choices of personal style. In the 1920s, Kitch argues, the political prominence of the New Woman dissipated, but her visual image pervaded print media. With seventy-five photographs of cover art by the era's most popular illustrators, The Girl on the Magazine Cover shows how these images created a visual vocabulary for understanding femininity and masculinity, as well as class status. Through this iconic process, magazines helped set cultural norms for women, for men, and for what it meant to be an American, Kitch contends.”

KOTTAK, Conrad Phillip. 1990. Prime-Time Society: An Anthropological Analysis of Television and Culture. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
Ch. 9, Television’s Social Impact, 134-152. [ON RESERVE]

LENT, John A., ed. 1980. Case Studies of Mass Media in the Third World. Williamsburg, Va. : Dept. of Anthropology, College of William and Mary. [UCCB HN 980 C35 1980] [ON RESERVE]
Nichols J.S. The Havana hustle.
Knudson, J. Treatment of the Indian in the Bolivian press.
Pollock, J.C. Reporting on critical events abroad.
Willer, T.F. Perceptions of women in Singapore.
Parker, E. The Malaysian elections of 1974.
Ugboajah, F. and Sobowale, I. The press in West Africa.
Lee, W.L. Television programming in the sixties.
Shaheen, J.G. Television programming in selected Middle East nations.

LIPSITZ, George. 1986. “The Meaning of Memory: Family, Class, and Ethnicity in Early Network Television Programs”. Cultural Anthropology 1 (4): 355-387. Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

MACHIN, David. 2002. Ethnographic Research for Media Studies. London: Hodder Arnold.
Introduction: what is ethnography? 1-16
Part I Ethnography: observing people in culture
1. Ethnography in anthropology: from magic to the media, 17-32
2. How the ethnographer should view culture, 33-49
3. Ethnography in the city: the Chicago School, 50-65
4. Research approaches to the mass media, 66-80
5. How good is ethnography compared to other methodologies? 81-92
Part II Ethnographic research in media studies
6. Popular music, 93-96
7. Watching television in the home, 99-102
8. News gathering, 103-107
9. Why we watch soaps, 108-113
10. Adoring film stars, 114-122
11. Using the Internet, 123-130
Part III The reassembled ethnography: data analyis
12. An anthropological approach to a news spectacle, 131-140
13. Understanding readers' newspaper allegiance: newspapers as an indication of character, 141-154
The ethnographic gaze in non-ethnographic research: role play, 155-164
15. Carrying out an ethnographic study, 165-170

MANKEKAR, Purnima. 1993. “National Texts and Gendered Lives: An Ethnography of Television Viewers in a North Indian City”. American Ethnologist 20 (3): 543-563. Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):
Recent anthropological research highlights the significance of mass media in the construction of identities. This article focuses on the ways in which men and women, located in specific sociocultural contexts, interpret entertainment serials shown on Indian television. It then proceeds to explore the place of the viewers' active engagement with television in terms of their constitution as national and gendered subjects. [television audiences, subjectivity, gender, nationalism, India]

MANN, Chris, and STEWART, Fiona. 2000. Internet Communication and Qualitative Research: A Handbook for Researching Online. London: Sage.
Ch. 4, “Introducing Online Methods”, 65-98 [ON RESERVE]
Publisher Comments:
"Communication and Qualitative Research is the first textbook to examine the impact of Internet technology on qualitative research methods. Drawing on many pioneering studies using computer-mediated communication (CMC), the authors show how online researchers can employ Internet-based qualitative methods to collect rich, descriptive, contextually-situated data. They discuss the methodological, practical and theoretical considerations associated with such methods as in-depth online interviewing, virtual focus groups, and participant observation in virtual communities. This is a comprehensive and practical guide that:

  • Reviews online research practice and basic Internet technology

  • Looks in detail at the skills required by the online researcher

  • Examines the ethical, confidentiality, security, and legal issues involved in online research

  • Considers the theoretical challenges surrounding data collected in a "virtual venue

  • Addresses the social and cultural impact of researching online through a discussion of power, gender, and identity issues in the virtual world"

McLUHAN, Marshall. “The Galaxy Preconfigured” and “The Medium is the Message”
Available at:

MICHAELS, Eric. 1985. “Constraints on Knowledge in an Economy of Oral Information”. Current Anthropology 26 (4): 505-510. Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

MICHAELS, Eric. 1982. TV Tribes. PhD Dissertation presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Austin.
FULL TEXT available online at:

MILKIE, Melissa A. 1999. “Social Comparisons, Reflected Appraisals, and Mass Media: The Impact of Pervasive Beauty Images on Black and White Girls' Self-Concepts”. Social Psychology Quarterly 62 (2): 190-210. Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):
Content analyses and experimental studies often indicate strong, usually negative effects of media on the self In contrast, qualitative work suggests that individuals may exercise considerable influence in selecting, interpreting and criticizing media content. This literature, however, does not adequately consider or specify how "interpreted" media content still might affect self-concept negatively. Incorporating social comparison and reflected appraisal processes, this study shows how media affect self-esteem indirectly, despite criticism, through beliefs about how others use and are affected by media. In-depth interviews with 60 white and minority girls, complemented by quantitative measures from a larger study, help to clarify how girls are affected by prominent images of females pervasive in media. Most girls see the images as unrealistic; many prefer to see "real" girls. White girls, despite their criticism, are still harmed by the images because they believe that others find the images important and that others in the local culture, especially boys, evaluate them on the basis of these images. Minority girls do not identify with "white" media images, nor believe that significant others are affected by them; thus their critical interpretations succeed in thwarting negative feelings. The study increases our understanding of media effects on the self-concept and suggests that researchers consider how media images may be part of social comparison and reflected appraisal processes.

MILLER, Daniel, and SLATER, Don. 2000. The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach. Oxford: Berg.
Ch. 1, Conclusions, 1-26
Ch. 2, Trinidad and the Internet – An Overview, 27-54
Ch. 3, Relationships, 55-84
Ch. 4, Being Trini and Representing Trinidad, 85-116
Ch. 5, The Political Economy of the Internet, 117-144
Ch. 6, Doing Business Online, 145-172
Ch. 7, Religion, 173-194
Publisher Comments:
“This pathbreaking book is the first to provide a rigorous and comprehensive examination of Internet culture and consumption. A rich ethnography of Internet use, the book offers a sustained account not just of being online, but of the social, political and cultural contexts which account for the contemporary Internet experience. From cybercafes to businesses, from middle class houses to squatters settlements, from the political economy of Internet provision to the development of ecommerce, the authors have gathered a wealth of material based on fieldwork in Trinidad. Looking at the full range of Internet media -- including websites, email and chat -- the book brings out unforeseen consequences and contradictions in areas as varied as personal relations, commerce, nationalism, sex and religion. This is the first book-length treatment of the impact of the Internet on a particular region. By focusing on one place, it demonstrates the potential for a comprehensive approach to new media. It points to the future direction of Internet research, proposing a detailed agenda for comparative ethnographic study of the cultural significance and effects of the Internet in modern society. Clearly written for the non-specialist reader, it offers a detailed account of the complex integration between on-line and off-line worlds. An innovative tie-in with the book's own website provides copious illustrations amounting to over 2,000 web-pages that bring the material right to your computer.”

Mixed Messages: Portrayals of Women in Media: Video Recording. [FILM: UCCB NFB 1178]

NAKAMURA, Lisa. 2002. Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet. London: Routledge.
Introduction, xi-xix
1. Cybertyping and The Work of Race in the Age of Digital Reproduction, 1-30 [ON RESERVE]
2. Head Hunting on the Internet: Identity Tourism, Avatars, and Racial Passing in Textual and Graphical Chatspaces, 31-60
3. Race in the Construct and the Construction of Race: The 'Consensual Hallucination' of Multiculturalism in the Fictions of Cyberspace, 61-86
4. "Where Do You Want to Go Today?": Cybernetic Tourism, the Internet, and Transnationality, 87-100
5. Menu-Driven Identities: Making Race Happen Online, 101-136
Conclusion, 137-146.
See also:
Publisher Comments

“Cyberspace entices us with the promise of an online utopia--a web of fluid identities and infinite possibilities. When we look for signs of freedom online--anywhere from chat room conversations to cyberpunk fiction--we are almost inevitably urged toward "liberation" from our bodies and their "restrictive" attributes like race, gender, and age. But cyberculture critic Lisa Nakamura insists that the Internet is a place where race matters. Race itself may not be fixed or finite, but Nakamura argues that racial stereotypes-or "cybertypes"-are hardwired into our online interactions: Identity tourists masquerade in virtual roles like Asian_Geisha and Alatinolover. Web directories sharply narrow racial categories. Anonymous computer users are assumed to be white. In Cybertypes, Nakamura looks at what happened to race when it went online, and how our ideas about race continue to be shaped and reshaped every time we log on. Examining all facets of our everyday online experience from Internet advertising to email jokes, Nakamura shows that the postmodern ideal of fluid selves made possible by network technology is not necessarily subversive, progressive, or liberating. The harder race is pushed off-line, the greater the consequences in real life for people of color. A lively and provocative discussion Cybertypes offers a valuable new way of thinking about race and identity in the information age.”

National Film Board of Canada. 1992. Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media. Montréal: Necessary Illusions ; National Film Board of Canada. 2 videocassettes (167 min.) [UCCB NFB 397]
Pt. 1. Thought control in a democratic society -- (95 min.)
Pt. 2. Activating dissent (72 min.)

National Film Board of Canada. 1989. Media and Society. Montreal, P.Q. : National Film Board of Canada. 3 video cassettes (VHS) (230 min.) [UCCB NFB 406]
Vol. 1. Advertising and consumerism (revised version)
Vol. 2. Images of women
Vol. 3. Cultural sovereignty, Shaping information.

O’BRIEN, Jodi. 1999. “Writing in the Body: Gender (Re)Production in Online Interaction”. In Marc A. Smith and Peter Kollock (eds), Communities in Cyberspace, pp. 76-106.London: Routledge. [ON RESERVE]

O’BRIEN, Susie, and SZEMAN, Imre. 2004. Popular Culture: A User’s Guide. Scarborough, Ont: Thomson Nelson.
Chapter One: Introducing Popular Culture
Chapter Two: The History of Popular Culture
Chapter Three: Representation and the Construction of Social Reality, 57-94 [ON RESERVE]
Chapter Four: The Production of Popular Culture
Chapter Five: The Consuming Life
Chapter Six: Identity and the Body
Chapter Seven: Identity and Community
Chapter Eight: Subcultures and Countercultures
Chapter Nine: Globalization and Popular Culture
Chapter Ten: Why Study Popular Culture? A Brief History of Cultural Studies

O'SULLIVAN, Tim, ed. 1997. The Media Studies Reader. 1997. Abingdon, Oxon: Hodder Arnold.
Section 1: The Media and Modern Life
Section 2: Stereotypes and Representations
Sections 3: Audience and Reception
Section 4: Producers and Production

PACCAGNELLA, L. 1997. “Getting the Seats of Your Pants Dirty: Strategies for Ethnographic Research on Virtual Communities”. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3(1). Available at:

PEDELTY, Mark. 1993. “News Photography and Indigenous People: An ‘Encounter’ in Guatemala.” Visual Anthropology Review 6(3): 285-301.

POSTER, Mark. 1998. “Virtual Ethnicity: Tribal Identity in an Age of Global Communications”. In Steven G. Jones (ed), Cybersociety 2.0: Revisiting Computer-Mediated Communication and Community, Pp. 184-211.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. [ON RESERVE]

POSTER, Mark. 1990. The Mode of Information: Postructuralism and Social Context. Cambridge: Polity Press. “Introduction: Words without Things”, 1-20. [ON RESERVE]

POWDERMAKER, Hortense. 1950. Hollywood, the Dream Factory: An Anthropologist Looks at the Movie-Makers. Boston: Little, Brown.
FULL TEXT available online at:

PRIEST, Susanna Hornig. Doing Media Research: An Introduction. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1996. [UCCB P 91.3 P75 1996] [ON RESERVE]

Part 1, Roots: Social Science Foundations
Ch. 1, A Philosophy of Social “Science”, 3-16
Ch. 2, Anthropology and the Range of Human Experience, 17-32
Ch. 3, Psychology and the Experimental Method, 33-52
Ch. 4, Sociological Study of Organizations and Institutions, 53-72
Part 2, Digging Up Answers: Asking Questions and Collecting Data
Ch. 5, Developing a Research Question, 73-86
Ch. 6, Counting: A Quantitative Methods Primer, 87-102
Ch. 7, Interpreting: Introducing Qualitative Methods, 103-118
Part 3, Toolbox: Quantitative Analytical Techniques
Ch. 8, Describing a Data Set, 119-132
Ch. 9, From Sample to Population, 133-144
Ch. 10, Testing Hypotheses, 145-160
Ch. 11, Explorations, 161-180
Part 4, Cookbook: Analyzing Qualitative Data
Ch. 12, Qualitative Research Revisited, 181-194
Ch. 13, Writing Descriptive Summaries, 195-206
Part 5, Branching Out: The Wider World of Research
Ch. 14, Research Horizons, 207-222
Ch. 15, Writing the Research Report, 223-230

ROFEL, Lisa B. 1994. “ ‘Yearnings’: Televisual Love and Melodramatic Politics in Contemporary China”. American Ethnologist 21 (4): 700-722.
Stable URL
(or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):
To trace the complex "passion for meaning" (Barthes) that animated the consumption and interpretation of Yearnings, a television melodrama that aired in China just a year and a half after the Tiananmen demonstrations, requires moving beyond a dichotomy between "the political" and "the popular." This article argues that Yearnings became a nationwide controversy because it allegorizes post-Tiananmen dilemmas of national identity in relation to socialism and in relation to the diverse class and gender positionings of the characters as well as the viewers. Textualist and reader-response analyses of popular culture need to be broadened by an ethnographic approach that asks sociodiscursive questions about the operations of popular culture as a site for the constitution of national subjects, one that offers complicated possibilities for oppositional practices. [China, national identity, popular culture, gender and class, politics of representations, the state]

RODGERS, Susan. 1986. “Batak Tape Cassette Kinship: Constructing Kinship Through the Indonesian National Mass Media”. American Ethnologist 13 (1): 23-42.
Stable URL
(or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):
As Leach noted in Political Systems of Highland Burma, Southeast Asia's Kachin-type kinship systems (with asymmetrical marriage alliance between wife-givers and their indebted wife-receivers) tend to be constructed in interaction with neighboring cultures. This paper examines one contemporary example of that for Sumatra's Angkola Batak. Focusing on the way national communication media shape local kinship ideas (and foster notions of "culture" and "kinship"), commercially produced Angkola tape dramas on family themes are examined as art forms providing Angkola with new images of human relationship. [kinship, Indonesia, orality and literacy, mass media, asymmetrical alliance]

RUHLEDER, K. 2000. “The Virtual Ethnographer: Fieldwork in Distributed Electronic Environments”. Field Methods 12(1): 3-17.

SCHRODER, Kim; DROTNER, Kirsten; KLINE, Steve; MURRAY, Catherine. Researching Audiences. 2003. Abingdon, Oxon: Hodder Arnold.
Section One: Contours of Audiences
Ch. 1, Approaching media audiences, 3-25
Ch. 2, The history and divisions of audience research: the received view, 26-43
Ch. 3, Methodological pluralism: the meta-theoretical foundations of discursive realism, 44-56
Section Two: The Ethnographic Approach to Audiences
Ch. 4, Audience ethnography in practice: between talk, text and action, 57-62
Ch. 5, Media ethnography: defining the field, 63-86
Ch. 6, The ethnographic toolbox: participant observation, 87-104
Section Three: Audience Reception Research
Ch. 7, Reception research in practice: researching media meanings through talk, 105-120
Ch. 8, Reception research: defining the field, 121-142
Ch. 9, The reception research toolbox: the qualitative interview, 143-172
Section Four: Foundations of Quantitative Audience Research
Introduction: the historical legacy of the philosophy of science, 173-179
Ch. 10, Towards a basic toolbox for quantitative researchers, 180-204
Section Five: Survey Research on Audiences
Ch. 11, Audience surveys in practice: from social context to numbers and back again, 205-224
Ch. 12, Audience surveys: defining the field, 225-244
Ch. 13, The audience survey toolbox: the questionnaire as lens, 245-278
Section Six: Experimental Audience Research
Ch. 14, Experimental audience research in practice: conceptualizing effects, 279-291
Ch. 15, Experimental audience research: Defining the field, 292-321
Ch. 16, The experimental audience research toolbox: the controlled experiment, 322-346
Section Seven: The Dual Challenge of 'Convergence' in Audience Research
Introduction: the dual challenge, 347-348
Ch. 17, Convergence of methodologies: rethinking methodological pluralism, 349-365
Ch. 18, Convergence of media: towards a new sense of 'audience', 366-378

SHADE, Leslie Regan. “The Internet and Social Movements”.
Available at:

SINGH, Ricky. 1984. Ricky Singh and the Caribbean Media: Caribbean Conference of Intellectual Workers, I & II, Grenada, November 20-22, 1982, Mount St. Benedict, Trinidad, January 13-14. La Habana: Palacio de las Convenciones de Cuba, 1984. [UCCB P 92 C33 S56 1984]

SNYDER, Jack, and BALLENTINE, Karen. 1996. “Nationalism and the Marketplace of Ideas”. International Security 21 (2): 5-40.
Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

SPITULNIK, Debra. 1993. “Anthropology and Mass Media”. Annual Review of Anthropology 22: 293-315.
Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

STRATTON, Jon. 2000. “Cyberspace and the Globalization of Culture”. In David Bell and Barbare M. Kennedy (eds), The Cybercultures Reader, Pp. 721-731. London: Routledge. [ON RESERVE]

Third World Mass Media: Issues, Theory, and Research. Williamburg, Va.: Dept. of Anthropology, College of William and Mary, 1979. [UCCB HN 980 T46] [ON RESERVE]

THUSSU, Daya K. 1998. Electronic Empires: Global Media and Local Resistance. Abingdon, Oxon: Hodder Arnold.
Globalization of Electronic Empires
Global Media – A Global Public Sphere?
Debating Media Globalization

Global Media and Local Resistance

THWAITES, Tony; DAVIS, Lloyd; and, MULES, Warwick. 2002. Introducing Cultural and Media Studies: A Semiotic Approach.  New York: Palgrave.
Introduction: Approaching Cultural and Media Studies
Ch. 1, Some Aspects of Signs, 9-28
Ch. 2, Signs and Systems, 29-47[ON RESERVE]
Ch. 3, Interactions of Signs, 48-76
Ch. 4, Texts and Textualities, 77-95
Ch. 5, Genre and Intertextuality, 96-116
Ch. 6, Narrative, 117-136
Ch. 7, Discourse and Medium, 137-157
Ch. 8, Ideology, 158-179
Ch. 9, Systems and Strategies, 180-212
Ch. 10, Other Approaches, Other Contexts, 213-223

TRAUBE, Elizabeth G. 1996. “The Popular" in American Culture”. Annual Review of Anthropology 25: 127-151.
Stable URL
(or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):
This review contrasts the relative lack of interest in "popular culture" within anthropology with the close, increasingly critical attention this concept has received within cultural studies. Rejecting both a production-oriented model of a manipulative mass culture imposed from above and a reception-oriented model of an expressive culture of the people, cultural studies scholars broke with essentialized conceptions and redefined the popular in Gramscian terms, as a zone of contestation, a site where the struggle for hegemony unfolds. The review uses this approach to relate the production of popular culture to class formation in the United States. Against overemphasis on the ideological effectivity of popular culture and a revisionist tendency to redefine it in affirmative, politically essentialized terms, the review suggests that contradictions and instabilities characterize all stages of the popular cultural circuit: commodity, text, and lived culture.

TURKLE, Sherry. 1995. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Introduction: Identity in the Age of the Internet, 9-28 [ON RESERVE]
I. The Seductions of the Interface
1. A Tale of Two Aesthetics
2. The Triumph of Tinkering
II. Of Dreams and Beasts
3. Making a Pass at a Robot
4. Taking Things at Interface Value
5. The Quality of Emergence
6. Artificial Life as the New Frontier
III. On the Internet
7. Aspects of the Self
8. TinySex and Gender Trouble
9. Virtuality and its Discontents
10. Identity Crisis

TURNER, Terence. 1992. “Defiant Images: The Kayapo Appropriation of Video”. Anthropology Today 8 (6): 5-16.
Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

WARDRIP-FRUIN, Noah, and MONTFORT, Nick. 2003. The New Media Reader. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

WEIMANN, Gabriel. 1994. The Theater of Terror: Mass Media and International Terrorism. New York: Longman. [PN 4784 T45 W45 1994]

WEINER, James F. 1997. “Televisualist Anthropology: Representation, Aesthetics, Politics”. Current Anthropology 382 (Apr): 197-235. Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

WELLMAN, Barry, and GULIA, Milena. 1999. “Virtual Communities as Communities: Net Surfers Don’t Ride Alone”. In Marc A. Smith and Peter Kollock (eds), Communities in Cyberspace, pp. 167-194. London: Routledge. [ON RESERVE]

WEST, Harry G., and FAIR, Jo Ellen. 1993. “Development Communication and Popular Resistance in Africa: An Examination of the Struggle over Tradition and Modernity through Media”. African Studies Review 36 (1): 91-114.
Stable URL (or go to UCCB Library website, E-resources by title, JSTOR, login and search for item by title):

WESTON, Mary Ann. 1996. Native Americans in the News: Images of Indians in the Twentieth Century Press. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. [UCCB PN 4888 I52 W47 1996] [ON RESERVE]
Ch. 1, Indians, Images, and the News Media
Ch. 2, The 1920s: Assimilation versus Cultural Pluralism
Ch. 3, The 1930s: In New Deal Legislation, Reform Meets Reality
Ch. 4, World War II: Braves on the Warpath
Ch. 5, The 1950s: Termination and Relocation
Ch. 6, The 1960s and 1970s: Direct Action for Self-Determination
Ch. 7, The 1980s and 1990s: Talking Back to the Media

WILSON, Samuel. M., and PETERSON, Leighton C. 2002. “The Anthropology of Online Communities”. Annual Review of Anthropology 31: 449-67.

WORTH, Sol, and ADAIR, John. 1972. Through Navajo Eyes: An Exploration in Film Communication and Anthropology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
FULL TEXT available online: